The routine vaccination schedule will protect your puppy from seven diseases: DA2PP (distemper, adenovirus, parinfluenza, parvo), rabies, infectious tracheobronchitis and lyme disease. The first four are included in a combination vaccine that is given at 8, 12, and 16 weeks old. Rabies vaccine is given at 16 weeks of age. infectious tracheobronchitis is given at 8 weeks of age and boostered every 6 months. Lyme disease vaccine is given at 12 and 16 weeks of age and boostered annualy.
Why does my puppy need more than one vaccination for canine distemper, upper respiratory infections, and Lyme disease?
When the puppy nurses its mother, it receives a temporary form of immunity through it's mother's milk. This immunity is in the form of proteins called antibodies. For about 24-48 hours after birth, the puppy's intestine allows absorption of these antibodies directly into the blood stream. This immunity is of benefit during the first few weeks of the puppy's life, but, at some point, this immunity fails and the puppy must be able to make its own long-lasting immunity. Vaccinations are used for this purpose. As long as the mother's antibodies are present, vaccinations do not "take." The mother's antibodies will neutralize the vaccine so the vaccine does not get a chance to stimulate the puppy's immune system.
Many factors determine when the puppy will be able to respond to the vaccines. These include the level of immunity in the mother dog, how much of the antibody has been absorbed, and the number of vaccines given the puppy. Since we do not know when an individual puppy will lose the short-term immunity, we give a series of vaccinations. We hope that at least two of these will fall in the window of time when the puppy has lost the immunity from its mother but has not yet been exposed to disease. A single vaccination, even if effective, is not likely to stimulate the long-term immunity which is so important.
Rabies vaccine is an exception to this, since one injection given at the proper time is enough to produce long-term immunity.
Do all puppies have worms?
Intestinal parasites are common in puppies. Puppies can become infected with parasites almost as soon as they are born. For example, the most important source of roundworm infection in puppies is the mother's milk. The microscopic examination of a stool sample will usually help us to determine the presence of intestinal parasites. We recommend this exam for all puppies, if we can get a stool sample. Please bring one at your earliest convenience. Even if we do not get a stool sample, we recommend the use of a broad spectrum deworming product that is safe and effective against almost all of the common worms of the cat. It is given now and repeated in about 3-4 weeks, because the deworming medication only kills the adult worms. Within 3-4 weeks the larval stages will have become adults and will need to be treated. Dogs remain susceptible to reinfection with hookworms, roundworms and whipworms. Interceptor given monthly can prevent a dog from becoming reinfested.
Tapeworms are a common intestinal parasite of dogs. Dogs/puppies become infected with them when they swallow fleas; the eggs of the tapeworm live inside the flea. When the dog chews or licks its’ skin as a flea bites, the flea may be swallowed. The flea is digested within the dog's intestine; the tapeworm hatches and then anchors itself to the intestinal lining. Therefore, exposure to fleas may result in a new infection; this can occur in as little as two weeks.
Dogs infected with tapeworms will pass small segments of the worms in their stool. The segments are white in color and look like grains of rice. They are about 1/8 inch (3 mm) long and may be seen crawling on the surface of the stool. They may also stick to the hair under the tail. If that occurs, they will dry out, shrink to about half their size, and become golden in color.
Tapeworm segments do not pass every day or in every stool sample; therefore, inspection of several consecutive bowel movements may be needed to find them. We may examine a stool sample in our office and not find them, then you may find them the next day. If you find them at any time, please notify us so we may provide the appropriate drug for treatment.
What are ear mites?
Ear mites are tiny insect-like parasites that live in the ear canal of cats (and dogs). The most common sign of ear mite infection is scratching of the ears. Sometimes the ears will appear dirty because of a black material in the ear canal; this material is sometimes shaken out. The instrument we use for examining the ear canals, an otoscope, has the necessary magnification to allow us to see the mites. Sometimes, we can find the mites by taking a small amount of the black material from the ear canal and examining it with a microscope. Although they may leave the ear canals for short periods of time, they spend the vast majority of their lives within the protection of the ear canal. Transmission generally requires direct ear-to-ear contact. Ear mites are common in litters of kittens if their mother has ear mites.
What can be done about fleas on my kitten/cat?
Fleas do not stay on your kitten all of their time. Occasionally, they will jump off and seek another host. Therefore, it is important to kill fleas on your new kitten before they can become established in your house. Many of the flea control products that are safe on adult cats are not safe for kittens less than four months of age. Be sure that any flea product you use is labeled safe for kittens.
Frontline Plus for cats and Revolution for cats are two of the safest and most effective flea products on the market. Frontline has an advantage in that it also will kill ticks. Revolution has an advantage in that it will kill heartworms and some intestinal parasites. These two products that are given only once per month; both can be used in kittens as young as six weeks.